Nutrition and Diabetes

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Diabetes is a widespread disease, the frequency of which increases with that of obesity. The importance of nutrition in the onset and course of diabetes is undisputed scientific fact. Overeating, dietary excesses and overloads with carbohydrates and fats increase the risk of diabetes, especially in persons who have an inherited predisposition to disease.

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in insulin deficiency or impaired insulin action.

There is chronic hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) due to a shortage of insulin, the inability to achieve insulin effects, or both.

Symptoms of untreated diabetes include excessive thirst, increased urine output, increased appetite, and poor wound healing.

Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of death in most diabetics, but also common among them are kidney disease, stroke, infections, eye diseases, neurological disorders, gangrene and others.

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by lack of insulin production of b-cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. This is the type of diabetes that often occurs in children, especially those aged 10-14 years. Absolute insulin deficiency in these patients have his permanent injection imports. Therefore, this type of diabetes is referred to as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Type 2 diabetes develops as a result of impaired sensitivity of cells to insulin action (insulin resistance), together with the delay or lack of insulin secretion. This insulin resistance leads to increased insulin requirements, which most individuals are unable to produce.

Sixty percent of patients with type 2 diabetes can maintain normal blood sugar levels by diet, physical activity, antidiabetic agents, which are taken orally, without insulin. This diabetes is insulin-type. It occurs mainly in people aged 40 However, in recent years have seen an increase in incidence among younger obese individuals. There is a direct correlation between obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
Orientations and behavior in diabetes.

As for the near and distant prognosis for this disease, the most important have good blood sugar control. Secondly, mandatory measures to regulate lipid metabolism (blood fat) and achieve a healthy weight.

Nutrition in diabetic patients plays a crucial role in their treatment.

Over the past 50 years has radically changed the views on this issue and present recommendations for nutrition of diabetic patients virtually inAdvice for diabetics:

  • Control and optimization of body weight are particularly important.
  • Attention is drawn to both quantitative and qualitative composition of the carbohydrates in food.
  • Recommended mostly complex sugars and dietary fiber. Carbohydrates should supply 55% of daily food energy (E%).
  • The recommended intake of fiber is at least 20-35 g / day.
  • Moderate exercise improves insulin efficiency and energy consumption.
  • Proteins should provide 10-20% E.
  • The intake of fat should be less than 30 E%, sufficient import of polyunsaturated fatty acids (about 10% E).distinguishable from those of healthy people
  • Eat a varied diet
  • Increase consumption of whole grain bread, vegetables and fruits
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce consumption of fat and saturated fatty acids
  • Limit salt intake
  • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation
  • Eat more fish
  • Preserving the nutritional value and safety of food.