A Clinical Screening Tool Identifies Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: Part 2

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Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a form of type 1 diabetes characterized by adult-onset diabetes (usually age >30 years), circulating islet antibodies, most commonly to GAD, and, initially, lack of requirement for insulin treatment. Based on findings in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), ∼10% of adults with diabetes have LADA. LADA is believed to be a slowly progressive form of autoimmune β-cell destruction, given that people with LADA have evidence of islet autoimmunity, namely circulating islet antibodies and type 1 diabetes susceptibility HLA class II alleles DQ2 and/or DQ8. Tissue immunofluorescence islet cell antibodies and GAD antibodies (GADAs) are common in LADA, whereas antibodies to tyrosine phosphatase–like insulinoma antigen 2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAAs) are not common. Patients with LADA typically present with more preserved β-cell function than those with classic type 1 diabetes but usually experience marked loss of β-cell function within 3 years of diagnosis, which eventually results in insulin dependence.

Detection of islet autoimmunity in adult-onset diabetes has prognostic and treatment implications. In the UKPDS, a majority of adults with diabetes, who had detectable GADAs, required insulin treatment within 6 years of diagnosis. We believe that physicians need to be aware that patients with LADA are prone to insulin deficiency and often require rapid escalation of oral hypoglycemic treatment or commencement of insulin earlier than islet antibody–negative patients.

Despite the frequency of LADA, there are no universal recommendations regarding testing for islet antibodies in adult-onset diabetes. Currently, many physicians test for islet antibodies only if they suspect LADA, generally on the basis of body weight. Overweight adults with diabetes are presumed to have type 2 diabetes and are not tested, whereas normal-weight adults are considered to potentially have LADA and may be tested. However, this approach neglects the many studies in which LADA has been documented with mean BMI in the overweight or even obese category. Moreover, with increasing obesity in adults worldwide, it will become even more difficult to distinguish LADA from type 2 diabetes based on BMI. A reliable clinical strategy is required to identify which adults with diabetes have a high likelihood of LADA and need testing for islet antibodies. Thus, we aimed to identify clinical features that distinguished LADA in adults presenting with diabetes and to establish a clinical screening tool that would improve the detection of LADA and ultimately the management of patients with LADA.



A Clinical Screening Tool Identifies Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

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OBJECTIVE—Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is defined as adult-onset diabetes with circulating islet antibodies but not requiring insulin therapy initially. Diagnosing LADA has treatment implications because of the high risk of progression to insulin dependency. Currently, there are no recommendations for islet antibody testing in adult-onset diabetes. In this study, we aimed to develop a clinical screening tool to identify adults at high risk of LADA who require islet antibody testing.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Subjects with LADA (n = 102, GAD antibody [GADA]+) and type 2 diabetes (n = 111, GADA−) (aged 30–75 years) were interviewed retrospectively. The clinical features documented were age of onset, acute symptoms of hyperglycemia, BMI, and personal and family history of autoimmune disease. Any clinical feature that was significantly more frequent in LADA was designated as a distinguishing clinical feature. In each subject, a “LADA clinical risk score,” based on the total number of distinguishing features, was calculated. A prospective study of adults with newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 130) was used to determine whether the LADA clinical risk score could identify LADA.

RESULTSIn the retrospective study, five clinical features were more frequent in LADA compared with type 2 diabetes at diagnosis: 1) age of onset <50 years (P < 0.0001), 2) acute symptoms (P < 0.0001), 3) BMI <25 kg/m2 (P = 0.0004), 4) personal history of autoimmune disease (P = 0.011), and 5) family history of autoimmune disease (P = 0.024). In the prospective study, the presence of at least two of these distinguishing clinical features (LADA clinical risk score ≥2) had a 90% sensitivity and 71% specificity for identifying LADA and a negative predictive value for a LADA clinical risk score ≤1 of 99%.

CONCLUSIONSAt least two distinguishing clinical features are found in a majority of patients with LADA at diagnosis and can be used to identify adults with diabetes at higher risk for LADA.



Free Diabetic Meal Plans – Diabetic Meal Planning

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Dealing with diabetes requires investing time in many different responsibilities. This is, of course, because diabetes remains a serious health issue. As such, a great deal of effective planning must go into keeping the condition in check. Once area where this is extremely important would be diet. The wrong diet eaten in the wrong amounts could have significant negative impact on a diabetic. That is why the availability of free diabetic meal plans is so enormously helpful. Following such meal plans can potentially reverse scores of problems that would have otherwise been too difficult to deal with.

When these plans are used in conjunction with diabetic testing supplies, you will discover that your ability to maintain effective blood sugar levels is increased significantly. Really, this should not come as much of a surprise. These plans have been specially designed so that it aids in keeping your blood sugar levels in check and that is of vital importance on diabetic people.

When a meal plan negative impacts a diabetic person, the results can be cataclysmic. Diabetic seizures are not uncommon when a person has a seriously dangerous blood sugar level. With diabetic meal plans (along with diabetic testing supplies), you can greatly reduce the potential for such adverse health effects from occurring. That alone will certainly help improve the quality of life.

They also make life a lot easier and less stressful. The reason is rather self-evident. When the meals are already planned out for you, it is not necessary to invest a great deal of time trying to devise the best possible meal plan on your own. Also, lack of familiarity regarding what makes a proper meal comes into play. How can you plan your meals if you do not know what the proper meal should be?

Shopping for the items on the meal list also can be a little complicated. Again, much of the complexity derives from not truly understanding what is required to create the proper meal selection. Those that lack experience in the field of healthcare are not going to be intimately versed in how to prepare meals. This is why they need access to effective meal plans which can guide their purchasing decisions.

And yes, the availability of FREE meal plans is a major benefit to those that must watch their budget as well as their diet. Consider that another major plus in regards to these meal plans.

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Free Diabetic Supplies for Seniors Information

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Senior citizens have enough medical bills to worry about without having to deal with paying out of pocket for diabetic testing supplies, and the good news is that there are programs available to help anyone that knows where to look. Any individual on a fixed income knows how important it is to save money where possible, especially when it is as easy as requesting more information online.

The majority of diabetics have probably seen an advertisement for test strips at one point or another, but there are many misunderstandings that lead individuals to avoid looking into the programs. Incredulous consumers often wonder how a company could provide diabetic testing supplies with out charging the patient, but it is necessary to understand that the organizations will be paid. The major difference is that the company is willing to work with the insurers and vendors instead of having to pass the cost directly to the patient. Any individual that is concerned with the validity of any of these programs should check with their family physician, and they will be happy to find that most doctors are very familiar with the providers and highly recommend using them.

One of the most common misconceptions associated with free diabetic supplies is that there will be certain income restrictions that will apply. In contrast to many of the sources of assistance for older individuals, no financial information is needed and the presence of assets will not disqualify anyone. The various providers that are currently working with individuals on Medicare can bill almost any type of insurance, and there simply is no need to continue paying the local pharmacy for test strips. All supplies can be received through the mail, and any necessary information that a doctor would have to supply will be obtained by the company.

Because there are multiple different providers that can work with various types of insurance, senior citizens should not attempt to perform all of the research on their own. The best course of action is to let one of the informative website resources gather a little bit of data, and then immediately find the best provider for a person’s specific circumstances. When a person is on original Medicare, a Medicare Advantage program, or enrolled in some other type of supplement, specific rules and guidelines are going to apply. Answering a few simple questions will allow the portal to correctly match the most appropriate supplier, and free diabetic testing supplies can be received in the mail within a week or two.


Five Effective Ways of Fighting Diabetes

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Diabetes can happen to anyone at any age. Usually people who consume lot of sugar and unhealthy stuff are more likely to be diabetic in their lives. Also, people who are overweight or people who have a family history for diabetes are at a greater risk of being diabetic. As soon as one is diagnosed with diabetic, the whole world seems upside down to him. Usually people are in panic attack and by hook or crook they want to come out of diabetes.

However, this attitude is not correct. When one worries more about being a diabetic and tries to take some drastic steps then he may eventually fall ill and mis manage his health. It is very important to come out of the denial mode that diabetes cannot happen to you. These are some 5 quick and very effective ways of fighting diabetes:

1) Accept the fact: It is extremely important to accept that you are a diabetic. The situation worsens when one is in denial mode and does not want to understand or accept the world around him.

2) Be positive: It is scientifically proven that if you are positive about something, then a positive outcome will occur and vice versa. Therefore, it is utmost important to be positive about it and keep reminding yourself that you are going to fight diabetes and very soon you’ll be back to normal life.

3) Take proper medication: It is crucial for a diabetic to follow a proper and accurate medication process. Many a times, young diabetic patients avoid taking pills and worsen their plight. So, a diabetic should meet the doctor at a regular interval to show his progress.

4) Do exercise: The role of exercise cannot be undermined for fighting the diabetes. Walk is one of the best exercise suggested by doctors. However, please note that do not go for heavy exercises or rigorous exercises. And before starting with any kind of exercises, you should first consult with your doctor.

5) Control the diet: This applies to you if you are overweight or you have a sweet tooth. Sweets are not good for a diabetic and also for the overweight patients. Therefore, try to avoid the junk food, oily food, high calories food or even the sweet food.

Your life is in your hands, so take utmost precaution and care to treasure it. Don’t let it go just because of taste buds and weak will power.

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Diabetes Symptom: Assessment Factors For Diabetes In Women

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Diabetes is a dysfunction of the insulin producing blood glucose factors. Different categories of diabetes diagnosis include insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus, non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes is controlled by diet alone, diet in combination with oral hypoglycemic medication, or diet in combination with insulin injections. The goal in living with diabetes is to control the blood glucose levels as much as possible. A unique aspect of diabetes for women is the situation of gestational diabetes, which is diabetes for women in the situation of gestational diabetes which is diabetes that is induced specifically by pregnancy as a result of an insulin resistant state induced by pregnancy as a result of an insulin resistant state induced by pregnancy

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Gestational diabetes occurs in approximately 3% of pregnant women, and approximately 60% of those women will develop NIDDM over the subsequent 20 years. In addition, there is a 90 % chance that a woman who has developed it with one pregnancy will develop it in a subsequent pregnancy. Women of childbearing age, therefore, deserve attention regarding prevention. Another factor unique to women is the presence of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is a condition in which multiple benign cysts grow on the ovaries with attendant anovulation and hirsutism. These women, then, represent an other group that deserves attention regarding its prevention or, at least, its regulation to achieve the highest potential for their individual health.

Risk factors for diabetes in women
Risk factors for the development of diabetes include a family history, obesity, high carbohydrate and high fat diet, and for women with a history of gestational diabetes and presence of polycystic ovarian disease. Screening for diabetes is through the fasting plasma glucose levels. Mexican online pharmacies

Symptoms of diabetes in women
The classic symptoms of diabetes are polyruia, polydipsia, and polyphagia, with associated fatigue, weight loss, and possibly blurred vision. If diabetes is discovered and treated before the development of ketoacidosis, this is preferable. Once ketoacidosis occurs, the pancreas has become unable to produce any insulin at all. The condition resulting is referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis, with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in addition tot he other symptoms of diabetes.

Current issues and controversies
Health care providers are focusing more attention on health promotion specifically related to diabetes prevention and control during pregnancy. Advances in scientific understanding of diabetes have contributed to the ability of individuals to control their blood sugar levels to a much higher degree than was possible previously. Women are now able to have healthy pregnancies despite diabetes, although the image of a pregnant woman with diabetes as being like the character portrayed in the movie Steel magnolias persists and, to an extent, has validity. The presence of diabetes concurrent with pregnancy continues to pose challenges to scientist, health care provides, and women and their families. It is important for health care providers to be empathic about the pressures on teenagers while making sure to encourage healthy habits in an effort to attain high level well-ness despite the presence of diabetes.



Type 2 Diabetes – Should You Take Vitamins When The News Says They Don’t Work?

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Hopefully by now you are realizing just how important vitamins and minerals are to your health as a diabetic. In fact, if it’s difficult for the average person to get enough vitamins and minerals from their food, then imagine how difficult it is for a diabetic to do so!

Taking a multivitamin with minerals is a good start, but it’s not enough. You need to go the entire distance and get a customized report of which exact vitamin and mineral you need and in what dosage for what amount of time. Apcalis jelly

Many people report that by taking their vitamins and minerals, they feel much better than when they don’t.

But what about the reports that say that vitamins don’t do any good? You may be wondering this…

The answer is that many of those research studies are quite flawed. The researchers make mistakes and they’re often bad ones! For example, they won’t use the right form of a vitamin or mineral. Or they will neglect to even run an assay or a lab test to determine whether or not the vitamin or mineral levels were low in the first place.

This second error is pretty bad. Think about it. If you want to see if a vitamin is going to benefit a patient or a research volunteer, then you must recall the basic principle of nutrition: giving vitamins and/or minerals to someone who has adequate levels does absolutely no good! It would be similar to putting more gasoline into your car when the levels in the gas tank are already at three-quarters full. Will you get any extra benefits? No, except in the car case, you may travel more distance. But you don’t travel more distance figuratively speaking when you give someone extra vitamins or minerals when they didn’t need them.

The vitamin and mineral deficiency signs and symptoms were established back in the years between 1920 and late 1970s. These research studies proved that if someone has a deficiency, certain signs and symptoms occur. And by replacing them into the diet, the signs and symptoms go away.

So don’t fear the news reports that say that you aren’t benefiting from vitamin supplements. If you need them, you will benefit. Try them and see. The difference can often be seen in a week or two. But please do so with the aide of a health professional who can actually test you for where your levels are. Canadian generic propecia

When you have diabetes, Type 1 or Type 2, many uninformed or unscrupulous people are more than happy to sell you an array of unproven treatments. Another reason for you to consult with a health professional who can guide your choice of vitamins and anti-diabetic supplements.



Diabetes Epidemic – Overcoming and Reversing the Symptoms of Diabetes

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Diabetes is becoming a problem for many people and you may have just received this diagnosis or know someone with this disease. Diabetes continues to increase year after year and about half of diabetics do not even know that they have this debilitating disease. Dealing with the diabetes epidemic and overcoming diabetes and reversing the symptoms of this disease requires making certain lifestyle changes.

The majority of new diabetes cases are mainly due to making poor nutritional choices in addition to the sedentary lifestyle that is fairly common in this modern age. It is possible to manage diabetes and even overcome diabetes. While there are various medications that are prescribed for diabetes management, the best approach to the treatment and cure of diabetes is adopting the holistic approach to the treatment of diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Insulin which is required to transfer the glucose in the blood stream to the various cells in the body is produced by the pancreas. Glucose is required by the body for energy for daily activities and for the proper functioning of the body. When you consume food particularly carbohydrates, the body converts this food into glucose which is the simplest form of sugar.

When a person has diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or the body does not respond to the insulin produced for any number of reasons. In addition, the pancreas may also not produce any insulin at all.

This leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood that cannot be transferred to the various body’s cells. This accumulation is then secreted by the body through urine leading to the loss of necessary energy needed for day to day activities.

Diabetes Types

a. Type 1

A Type 1 diabetes diagnosis leads to the reliance on daily injections of insulin. Injecting insulin is the quickest way to enable the insulin to quickly start transferring the glucose in the blood to the various cells and organs in the body.

Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed during childhood and results from a malfunctioning pancreas that stops producing insulin which means that diabetics with this type will rely on injections of insulin in order to survive.

b. Type 2

With Type 2 diabetes the pancreas does not produce enough or the body rejects or does not know how to use the insulin produced. Type 2 diabetes diagnoses have been exploding each year and this is mainly due to poor lifestyle choices. With this type of diabetes, it is possible to cure it by making better nutrition choices and adding daily activity.

If not properly managed, Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes can lead to various long term damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and the nerves if glucose continues to accumulate in the blood stream with no place to go.

Diabetes complications that can result from this damage include dealing with blindness, heart disease, kidney disease, various skin conditions, the nerve damage can lead to the necessity for limb amputations, etc. Diabetes complications can also lead to a diabetic coma or death.

c. Gestational

Gestational diabetes is usually pregnancy related and usually goes away a few months after giving birth. It can also develop into Type 1 diabetes later on. Gestational diabetes usually develops during the third trimester.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Because the symptoms of diabetes usually develop gradually, diabetes is known as one of the silent killers. It is important to note that because some diabetics with Type 2 diabetes many not show any diabetes symptoms, it is especially important to get tested for diabetes. Some of the symptoms of diabetes include;

a. Excessive hunger

b. Excessive thirst

c. The need to urinate frequently

d. If you experience sudden changes in eye sight or sudden vision problems

e. Fatigue problems

f. If you have bruises and cuts that are very slow to heal

g. Unusual weight loss that is sudden



Smoking Is a Big Problem for Youth With Diabetes

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Smoking is practiced were the cigarette is burned, inhaled and exhaled. In ancient times it was used in rituals but as in modern age it is commonly used to relieve stress. There are many diseases which can be associated with this practice and now scientist believes it is also linked to diabetes.

According to the study which was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases, conducted the research on 3,466 diabetic children and young adult with the age group of 10 to 22 years old. The study found out that about 10 percent of children and adolescence were already consuming tobacco products. To make things worse, most of them are already given some counseling by a health professional to halt smoking.

The study shows that there are smokers who are suffering from heart diseases. The majority of youths are not active compared to those who aren’t smoking.

The threat of smoking for diabetes can be prevented if the individual has the will to stop smoking slowly. Researchers believe that quitting smoking may result into obesity which may aggravate diabetes even more. It is important that smokers who want to quit should also watched their weight as obesity is regularly tied to diabetes and other diseases.

The general rule to have a healthy life is not to start smoking. Smoking will only bring disease which may cause your death



Fiber Rich Foods For Diabetics – 3 Prime Foods to Consume

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Any diabetic is bound to remain with tied hands to certain foods which he should not eat. However, he needs no more to be in despair as he has lots of foods delicious and fiber rich foods for diabetics. If you are prone to diabetes, you can remain ‘no risk’ when you consume such foods in plenty by considering your diabetic condition. Paying more attention on ‘diabetic foods to avoid’ is equally important as the choices of ‘foods a diabetic should eat’. If a diabetic chooses foods high in fiber, benefits are many for preventing diabetes. If in addition a diabetic chooses to consume selected foods with high nutritional values including essential vitamins and minerals, he will have more chance to be free from pelting pains and peculiarities of diabetic problems.

Specifically, a diabetic is fenced against eating foods high in carbohydrates in large amount in a day. It is crucial that he chooses varieties of foods high in fiber but low in carbohydrates. If one is particular with deliciousness to his taste, he can better choose fresh fruits, green vegetables, and bean varieties. If you consume fruits low in sugar, you will have more chance to managing diabetic condition without steep rise in the blood sugar levels. Fiber rich foods are really the nature’s gift to help the diabetics go a long way without health risks. We shall have here the prime few of high fiber foods.

Berries: Berries are safe and healthy fruits benefitting the diabetics. This is due to the fact that raspberries, blueberries, and strawberries are the first in excellence containing rich fiber and low sugar as well as carbohydrates. Among these three, the raspberries contain 8 gms of fiber in one cup serving, the others measuring 4 gms and 3.5 gms. So, you may better consider the salient feature of berries group as one of the best fiber foods for diabetics.

Bean varieties: Beans are the first-rate and outstanding fiber rich foods for diabetes. In the list of beans, you may add split peas, black beans, lima beans, and lentils. Among these, split peas stand first to include high fiber to fight diabetes.

Fruit nuts: Most of the nuts claim equal importance in controlling diabetes as they are all fiber content by plant genetics. As such, you may choose to consume sunflower seeds, almond seeds, and pecans if you are diabetic. It is usually recommended that women diabetics consume dietary fiber rich foods 20 to 30 gms a day and men diabetics a little higher by 10 gms to measure 30 to 40 gms daily.