Diabetes and Obesity

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Type 2 diabetes (characterised by being resistant to the effects of insulin or not making enough insulin) affects about 90 percent of the people that are diagonsed with diabetes.

Researchers at the University of Chicago state the following in a November 2009 report:

  • With the percentage of the American population that are obese staying the same, diabetes cases will nearly double in the next 25 years (24 million today to 44 million people in 2034).
  • The cost of treating these diabetes cases will almost triple from 113 to 336 billion dollars over the same time, measured in constant 2007 dollars (adjusted for inflation).
  • The Medicare portion of spending on diabetes is expected to climb from 45 to 171 billion dollars.
  • Because these figures assume obesity won’t rise, they are conservative. Records indicate that obesity is rising, with approixmately 30 percent of the US population considered obese today. This percentage should drop.to 27 percent by 2033.
  • Much of these costs are associated with the aging baby boomer population (those 77 million Americans born between 1946 and 1957). According to Dr. Elbert Huang, professor of medicine at the U of C and study co-author says “It’s a combination of increasing numbers and cost that drive these frightening numbers.”

    This reinforces the need to prevent diabetes through public and private health efforts. Prevention of diabetes (type 2 for most people) requires transformation of the way we eat, increasing the amount of exercise performed, and points out the importance of finding new ways of treating diabetes efficiently. For people that contract diabetes through this route, this means finding a way to reduce insulin resistance.

    Dr. David Kendall, American Diabetes Association chief scientific and medical officer, noted the following after reviewing these findings “The study was entirely consistant.. with previous reports that the growth in diabetes is substantial and ever-increasing, and the costs of diabetes also are substantial and ever-increasing.”

    A separate report, also issued in the fall of 2009 from Loyola University Health System, noted that more diabetics are becoming morbidly obese. It stated that 1 in 5 people with Type 2 diabetes are over 100 pounds overweight. The medical definition of this condtion is morbidly obese. Further detail in the report noted that 62 percent of Type 2 adults in the US are obese and 21 percent are morbidly obese. In the African-American population with diabetes, one third are morbidly obese. These numbers are based on the body mass index, a measure of body fat based on height and weight.

    People that are morbidly obese have a series of issues beyond diabetes (or in addition to diabetes) which can include:

  • Heart disease
  • End-stage kidney disease
  • Arthritis
  • Sleep apnea
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Once you are over 100 pounds overweight, it is very difficult to remove the weight.
  • I bring these facts up to illustrate the growing problem of diabetes and the cause of diabetes for most people.

    It follows that an obvious solution to the issue, on an individual basis, would be to control your weight. This is proven to be possible through a combination of diet modification and exercise. Both of these ideas are influenced by popular culture and individual choice. Help and support in making these choices is available through many avenues. The most effective way is by education and action fueled by motivation.


    Type 2 Diabetes – Newly Diagnosed?

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    How do doctors determine if you have type 2 diabetes? The doctor has three different tests he can perform to see if your blood glucose levels fit into the range of diabetes or pre-diabetes. These include the fasting plasma glucose, the oral glucose tolerance test, and the random plasma glucose test. All but the last one will then diagnose diabetes and pre-diabetes. The last one will only diagnose diabetes. When you come into the doctor’s office with a list of symptoms, your doctor will likely recommend one of these three. Let’s look at each one and what the results may be.

    The first type of test your doctor may perform to check for type 2 diabetes is the fasting plasma glucose or FPG. This health test is both convenient and also low priced. This makes it the first choice for many physicians to make an initial diagnosis. It may occassionally yield a wrong answer or a false negative. So many medical teams may use another test to then verify. With this test, the patient must fast for 8 hours before. Many doctors perform the test early in the morning before the patient eats breakfast. The test measures the glucose levels in milligrams per deciliter or mmol/L. With a reading of 99 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/l) or below, the patient is normal and does not have diabetes. If the reading is between 100 and 125 mg/dl (5.6 – 7.0 mmol/L), the patient likely has pre-diabetes. A reading over 125 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) now implies the person likely has Type 2 Diabetes. Your healthcare team will likely repeat the test if they need to verify the final result.

    Another test performed is the oral glucose tolerance test or OGTT. It is definitely more sensitive or accurate than the FPG. It also requires an 8 hour fast. At the time of the test, the technician takes the plasma glucose level. Immediately after this, the person has a glass of water with 75 grams of glucose dissolved in it. Two hours later, the technician then takes a second plasma glucose level. The reading taken after the two hours is what is measured. If the blood glucose level is in the vicinity 139 mg/dl (7.7 mmol/l) or less, the person is then clear of Diabetes. If the reading is between, 140 and 199 mg/dl (7.7 -11 mmol/l), the patient has pre-diabetes. If the reading is over 200 mg/dl (11 mmol/l), the patient has diabetes.


    Natural Cures for Diabetes

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    According to the American Diabetes Association, around 21 million people suffer from diabetes in the United States. A larger and larger percentage of these people are turning to natural cures for diabetes.

    Currently there is no known cure but the general routine for a person that has been diagnosed is to alter their lifestyle, eating habits and exercise routine. There has been, however, some new research that has led to the belief that a cure for diabetes is found in alternative and natural medicine, not through traditional medicine, which has thus far failed to produce a cure. Natural treatments have shown a lot of promise in being able to reduce or stop this horrible disease.

    Natural Medicine Defined

    Natural medicine may also be called holistic medicine or alternative medicine. It is a medical path that is focused on using Eastern methods or folk medicine methods of treatment for diseases, injuries and other medical ailments. In most cases treatments are done with the thought that treating what is wrong needs to be done with a whole body approach and not just focusing in on the specific problem. Natural medicine does not involve the use of traditional medications. Instead it uses herbs, other natural substances and therapeutic methods to treat patients.


    Acupuncture is something widely used in Eastern medicine. It is a concept based upon the idea that the body has several areas that when stimulated will affect the flow of energy in the body and help the body to naturally heal itself. The idea of energy is something widely used in Eastern medicine since the belief is that it is the energy flow of the body that determines overall health.

    Acupuncture is used to help fix blood flow within the body and to improve the function of the pancreas. Different methods of treatment may be used by the acupuncturist when treating a patient with diabetes.

    Apple Cider Vinegar

    Apple cider vinegar is something that has been long used in folk medicine. It is said to have great powers and be able to heal. Vinegar, specifically, has been proven to have an effect on blood sugar levels. In a patient with diabetes, supplements of apple cider vinegar can help to lower blood sugar, bringing about stability and stopping the need for medications.

    Various Herbs

    Herbs are often used as well. There are many herbs that have shown to be effective in controlling the blood sugar levels. Some of the herbs used include aloe vera, cinnamon and garlic.

    Natural approaches to curing diabetes are not something that many doctors will accept. Most likely a doctor will push a patient to start taking medications and to use other methods of treatment. They do this simply because they are on the side of science and anything that can’t be proved beyond a doubt in a lab is not something they want to back.

    Natural methods are very difficult, sometimes impossible to prove, but that does not mean they are not effective. For someone looking to cure their diabetes, though, using natural methods along with proper diet and exercise is one of the best ways.


    What Is Insulin and How Do We Produce It?

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    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to battle rising blood sugar levels caused by normal carbohydrate intake. A diabetic person is unable to produce Insulin at all so must take injections to keep blood sugar levels at an acceptable level.

    Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. Recombinant DNA technology is used to synthetically create Insulin for medical use. A type 1 diabetic can take insulin in the form of injections in a Multiple Daily Injections scheme or with the use of an insulin pump which closely mimics the action of a real pancreas.

    The cause of type 1 diabetes is not yet understood fully which makes finding a cure very difficult. Usually children and young adults are diagnosed and most continue to live a normal healthy life by learning to manage and control the condition

    Insulin contains two separate amino acid chains bonded together. Proteins are all made up of amino acids, the basic building blocks. The two chains have slightly different amounts of amino acids.

    Preproinsulin is required to be produced before an active insulin protein can be made. Preproinsulin is a single protein chain containing both of the separate chains, a section in the middle links the chains together and stimulates the proteins to secret. An evolution then occurs developing proinsulin and finally an active insulin protein is formed which does not have the linking section between the individual chains.

    Specific enzymes are required by the protein at each step of evolution to ensure the next step is accurately generated.

    Insulin production is a lengthy and complicated process but the millions of type one diabetics rely on it every day to keep well and healthy.



    Tests for Diagnosing Chronic Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot. Part 4

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    The mean time of ulcer duration was 44 weeks, the median being 16 weeks (range 1–74 weeks). When we examined ulcer duration according to the results of the different diagnostic methods, in patients in whom osteomyelitis was biopsy proven, ulcer duration was 41.67 ± 75.52 weeks, and in those with a negative biopsy result, it was 52.19 ± 104.32 weeks (P = 0.554). Corresponding ulcer durations in weeks recorded for a positive versus a negative test result, respectively, were PTB 41.15 ± 74.19 vs. 56.48 ± 112.74 (P = 0.417), ulcer specimen culture 45.83 ± 85.14 vs. 33.19 ± 62.55 (P = 0.519), radiography signs 42.08 ± 72.97 vs. 55.59 ± 129.61 (P = 0.528), and clinical signs 44.26 ± 89.51 vs. 42.83 ± 62.99 (P = 0.926).

    Test efficiencies (percentage of patients correctly diagnosed as positive or negative) were PTB 93.89% (88–99.1%), ulcer specimen culture 71.97% (63.4–79.7%), radiographic signs 75.76% (67.4–82.6%), and clinical signs 59.09% (50.2–67.4%). To try to improve the capacity for diagnosing osteomyelitis, we assessed the use of two of the clinical diagnostic methods compared with bone histology and found that only when the PTB test was one of the two methods was the result significant. Thus, the pair of methods, clinical signs plus PTB, showed a sensitivity of 64.8%, specificity of 77.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.9%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 36.2% (P < 0.001, κ 0.298); for radiography signs plus PTB the values recorded were sensitivity 88.6%, specificity 66.7%, PPV 91.2%, and NPV 60% (P < 0.001, κ 0.530); and for culture plus PTB they were sensitivity 84.8%, specificity 77.8%, PPV 93.8%, and NPV 56.8% (P < 0.001, κ 0.550). The test revealed by this analysis as most accurate was the PTB with a PPV of 94.5%. According to the decision tree, a correct diagnosis was made in 98.4% of the neuropathic ulcers vs. 88% of the neuroischemic ulcers. The correlation between ulcer duration and risk of having osteomyelitis was only significant for the neuroischemic ulcers such that 100% of ulcers <9 weeks old were positive for osteomyelitis. In this study we sought to provide data on the validity of the tests used in current clinical practice to diagnose chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. There is still much controversy regarding the best way to detect bone infection in patients with diabetes, and there is also confusion about which is the most efficient treatment. Although most researchers consider that the histopathological study of bone specimens is the criterion standard for diagnosing osteomyelitis, this method is not systematically used because clinicians feel that surgically obtaining bone tissue is an aggressive procedure and puts patients at risk. Moreover, qualified medical staff are needed to undertake the surgical procedure. Buy avandia online
    Few studies have validated the use of clinical signs as a diagnostic tool for infection of the diabetic foot. Cutting and White and Gardner et al. performed a series of studies on chronic foot ulcers, but their patients had different systemic diseases including diabetes. Our findings indicate that assessment of clinical signs of infection in diabetic patients, although valid, provides limited information for a prompt diagnosis of osteomyelitis. There is an obvious need for a more detailed and precise definition of clinical indicators in chronic diabetic ulcers.


    How Can You Cure Diabetes?

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    Trying to find the best treatment for diabetes is quite difficult since the disease itself is difficult to diagnose. This is one such ailment which must be handled with proper care. However, the condition can be easily controlled with proper diet and lifestyle changes. The complexities that lie in trying to find the best treatment for diabetes can sometimes be an infuriating experience. It takes time to find out the treatment that will be effective on the diabetes and at the same time have minimum impact on their lifestyle. An idea about how the various types of treatments work on the disease will be helpful in finding an effective form of treatment for you.

    There are various treatments available that contributes towards the treatment of the disease. Insulin injections and oral medications are some of the forms of treatment that are available. For the treatment of diabetes, you can use both insulin and the oral medication. However, it is not always necessary to use insulin injections. Besides, there are also a number of other methods that can be used to keep the condition in check. And since there are a wide variety of medications available, trying to find suitable medications for you is a time consuming task.

    Regular exercise also can keep your health in check. Being overweight is one of the major factors of diabetes. So keeping your weight in check may also be helpful in curbing the issue. Most of the people find trying to fight against diabetes pathetic and annoying. Your eating habits and your lifestyle play a major role in keeping diabetes in control. In trying to combat diabetes, most people have had to endure many failed treatment methods and regimes. But this must not let you deter your spirit. With a little care and prevention you can still lead the life you use to.



    Free Blood Glucose Meters

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    It is a question asked every day by those who have just been diagnosed with diabetes, as well as those who are just looking for an upgrade. How do I get a free blood glucose meter? The reality is that if you are just starting to purchase diabetic supplies, or if you have been testing for years, you typically can find free glucose meters being handed out in a variety of places. The reason is that all the manufacturers want you buying their glucose test strips, solutions, lancets, etc., and that is why the market is flush with free glucose meter offers. The assumption is that once you buy the meter, you will purchase the remainder of your supplies with that company.

    Here’s our take on the top 3 ways to make sure you’re not paying for a glucose meter that everyone else is getting free of charge:

    • Ask Your Doctor – This is pretty darn simple, and if you were just diagnosed, you probably don’t need us telling you the obvious (since your doctor probably handed you one on the way out of the office). Yes, most doctors, especially those that specialize in diabetes, have been given plenty of free meters to hand out to their patients from different product manufacturers. It makes sense that your doctor will have their favorite brand, but do not hesitate to ask for a brand you are most comfortable with if you’ve had the chance to do some research. If they cannot provide what you are looking for, move on to tip # 2… there are other options.
    • Call Your Supplier – Every diabetic patient has some sort of ongoing supplier of diabetic test strips, solution, lancets, and other supplies in order to test their blood sugar on a regular basis. Most of these companies will have access to free blood glucose meters. As with your doctors, they typically have a certain number of free meters to give out by individual manufacturers looking to have you use their test strips and other diabetic supplies.
    • Contact the Manufacturer – If all else fails (and it certainly should not), just give the manufacturer of the blood glucose meter you would like to purchase a call. There is nothing like going straight to the source, and they would be more than happy to send a meter, or direct you to one of their retailers who can provide the same.

    The point is that most of these organizations would be happy to accept payment if you decide to buy a meter out of pocket. Not all suppliers or doctors will be able to provide every brand at no cost, but most will have at least some type of glucose meter free of charge. You may need to go to more than one source, or possibly be open to a different brand than you had originally planned, but there is absolutely no need to pay.

    This is especially true in a time when more and more people are being forced to pay for diabetic supplies out of pocket due to not having insurance, or insurance that does not adequately cover their costs. If this is the situation you find yourself in, just watch that the free glucose meter you are handed doesn’t come with test strips that are out-of-this-world expensive. You will find this to be the case in many of the doctor’s offices, in which case you should find your supplier of choice, and have them help you get a glucose meter with test strips that are affordable in the long term. Any good supplier will certainly be able to do this for you.


    Tests for Diagnosing Chronic Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot. Part 3

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    All of the patients with diabetic ulcers underwent plain radiography to obtain dorsoplantar, lateral, and oblique views of both feet for assessment of possible bone alterations produced by the lesion. Osteomyelitis was suspected when one or more of the following radiographic signs were observed: periosteal elevation, cortical disruption, medullary involvement, osteolysis, and sequestra (segments of necrotic bone separated from living bone by granulation tissue).

    Finally, based on the results of the clinical examination, soft tissue culture, PTB, and plain X-ray, patients with a diagnostic suspicion of osteomyelitis were subjected to a bone tissue biopsy obtained by conservative surgery. During surgery, we first removed all nonviable infected soft tissue and then excised all of the affected bone, obtaining a representative bone sample for subsequent histopathological analysis. The bone biopsy specimens were introduced in a sterile recipient containing 10% buffered formalin solution and transported to the pathological anatomy laboratory within 48 h, where they were immediately processed and examined. The histological criteria considered diagnostic of osteomyelitis were inflammatory cell infiltrate mostly composed of lymphocyte cells, plasma cells, neutrophils within spongy and cortical bone; bone necrosis; and reactive bone neoformation possibly accompanied by prominent periosteal bone proliferation (18). We used the results of the bone biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis.

    The prevalence of osteomyelitis in the 132 patients with clinical suspicion of infection included in this study was 79.5% (105 patients). Each of these patients had a single ulcer. Of the ulcers, 59% were classified as neuropathic and 41% were classified as neuroischemic. The mean ± SD duration of diabetes was 15.6 ± 9.5 years, blood glucose was 161.4 ± 60.3 mg/dl, and A1C was 7.9 ± 1.9%. The following complications of diabetes were recorded: diabetic retinopathy in 68 patients (51.5%), diabetic nephropathy in 27 patients (20.5%), hypertension in 94 patients (71.2%), stroke in 62 patients (47%), cardiovascular problems in 56 patients (42.4%), prior ulcers in 65 patients (49.2%), and prior conservative lower extremity amputation in 48 patients (36.4%).

    The etiopathogenic characteristics of the ulcers were lack of pedal pulses in 33 patients (25%), a positive monofilament test in 100 patients (75.8%), and vibration sensitivity in 121 patients (91.7%); the ankle-arm index was 0.91 ± 0.3 and TcPo2 was 34.2 ± 14 mmHg. In 124 patients (93.9%), the ulcer was classified as Wagner grade III, in 5.3% as grade II, and in 0.8% as grade IV. According to Texas classification, the ulcers in 73 patients (55.3%) were type IIIA and in 41 patients (31.1%) they were type IIIB; types IA and IIIC were less frequently recorded, and each appeared in only 1 patient (0.8%).

    In 75 patients (56.8%), the exudate from the ulcer was serous, in 32 patients (24.2%), there was no exudate, in 18 patients (13.6%), the exudate was purulent, in 5 patients (3.8%), it was sanguinous, and in 2 patients (1.5%) it was serosanguinous. In 98.2% of the patients, the ulcers appeared on the forefoot. Most of these ulcers appeared on the middle toes (second, third, and fourth) (28.7%) or the underside of the second, third, and fourth metatarsals (27.2%). The least frequent locations were over the scaphoid (0.9%) and cuboid (0.9%) bones.


    Diabetes Meter Review

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    Diabetes is a very demanding condition. You need to stick to rigorous diets, have an exercise program, control your weight and besides all this, you have to test your insulin levels maybe twice or three times a day. And don’t forget about your professional life and family duties. How can someone keep track of all these things?

    For all these reasons, it’s very practical to make a review of the blood sugar meters available in the market today in order for you to invest your money in the most profitable way when acquiring your glucose meter.

    Which Diabetes Meter Is The Best For You?

    If what you need is an accurate, easy to use and painless meter then you should consider the top 3 diabetes meters in the market: Accu Check, One Touch Ultra and Precision Xtra. Indeed, they differ from one another and that’s what we’re going to see right away so that you do a wise selection.

    Accu Check

    This meter is very popular. Its main advantage is that it provides an easy reading on a large display. It’s accurate and intuitive to operate. However, it’s not really portable for its large size. That makes it more proper for home use.

    Precision Xtra

    This is another very popular sugar meter. It provides total accuracy and its portability makes it very attractive for those who have to take it everywhere and need to test small children or anyone who has difficulty with the traditional testing methods. There’s only one obstacle regarding this device: it’s not easy to operate and requires a little time to learn its use.

    One Touch Ultra

    This glucose meter is very alike Precision Xtra but it has a great plus which is very easy to use and very portable. This gadget is totally suitable for active young adults or any dynamic people who are moving around all day long everyday.

    Free Diabetes Meter

    According to what is stated above, choosing properly a diabetes meter depends on your needs and lifestyle. These three diabetes meters have similar costs but in order to be absolutely sure of which device is the best for you, it’s recommendable you look for a free trial. There are many companies that offer free trials. So if you’re interested, all you have to do is to answer a few questions online and you’ll get a glucose meter totally free


    Getting To Know Diabetes

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    Your health is not something that you should take lightly. It never hurts to shell out money just as long as you have an assurance that you’re healthy.

    Diabetes is a common disease that anyone can have including children. There’s no current cure for it yet so you just need to be vigilant on this one.

    My grandmother died because of diabetes. She has insulin shots just to keep everything stable and her wounds aren’t healing that fast anymore. My grandmother grew weaker and thinner. In the end, we lost her. But the thing I remembered the most about her is how she disciplined and loved me and my cousins.

    How do you know that you’re already having diabetes?

    Being too hungry can already set you up for diabetes. Insulin levels in your body get depleted and your organs go weaker. Because of the low energy output of your organs, your body craves for more food that it should to get some energy back.

    Fluids in the body gets drained easily causing us to go thirsty more than before. As we gain thirstier, our urination becomes frequent as well. The body needs to release the excess water it has. It can also be a sign of kidney damage because whatever happens to your kidney, affects your urination.

    The elevation of blood sugar is the most common and major symptom that diabetes can cause. To check on your blood sugar, you need to go to a doctor and get tested. A rise in blood sugar is caused by a problem in the insulin levels of the body. The glucose can’t be regulated right and problems start to arise.

    Genetics are another reason why you may acquire diabetes. Yes this can be passed on.

    When a person drastically decreases weight without even gaining weight, he should immediately go to a doctor to get checked. It’s not only a sign of diabetes, but all sorts of other problems as well. My dad decreased weight because of Hyperthyroidism and my grandmother decreased weight because of diabetes.

    Preventing diabetes from happening can be done by simply living a healthy life. Going on exercise on a regular basis will help. Normally, dietitians and doctors will recommend a person to lose excess weight to keep diabetes from happening. To lose weight, you should also eat nutritious food. Everything starts from deciding to live healthy. In the end, it’s all up to us.